Tag Archives: Genocide of 1994



I’m finally headed to Africa. I’ll travel to both Rwanda and Uganda with Edwin Sabuhoro, the young man I met after the July 2016 killing of Cecil the Lion. I leave Sunday, Feb. 10 and return home on Feb. 28th. My trip will be a jam-packed working trip with lots of people to meet, animals to see and information to gather.

In case you don’t recall my previous blog about Edwin, here’s the short version of who he is.
Edwin grew up in the relatively small country of Rwanda in Central Africa. He was just a baby when the fourth and worst genocide broke out. Being of Tutsi origin, Edwin, his family, and relatives were the targets of the Hutu Government which casually authorized the 1994 Genocide during which nearly one million Tutsis and Hutu sympathizers were bludgeoned to death leaving the land littered with bodies, parts of bodies and rivers of blood.

Edwin’s mother, siblings, and relatives fled Rwanda and traveled by foot to the safety of the refugee camps just inside the borders of  Uganda. At one point in their journey, the relatives feared that Edwin was slowing down the group. Edwin’s Mum carried him as she ran for her life. The consensus was that his Mum should throw Edwin into a river, so that the group could move faster. However, Edwin’s Mum would have none of it, as she trudged on carrying her sweet baby close to her bosom.

When Edwin grew up, he earned his law degree. As a lawyer, part of his responsibilities was to represent people on a pro-bono basis. When Edwin was asked to represent a Hutu man, who bludgeoned an entire family to death, Edwin abandoned the law. He subsequently began working as a park ranger in Volcanoes National Park where the endangered mountain gorillas live. Edwin fell in love with the gorillas and other animals as he sought to protect them from poaching.
Baby Gorilla
At one point, the rangers caught wind of a baby gorilla which had been captured and was up for sale to the highest bidder. Edwin volunteered to pose as a buyer. Once the exchange was made, the poachers were captured, and the baby was returned to his home. Edwin described to me what he felt when he peered into the burlap bag carrying the captured gorilla. He was overwhelmed with compassion and wonder at the big brown eyes staring back at him.

Over the next few days, Edwin thought about the poachers. He could tell they were not wealthy. Instead, they were ordinary males who lived in a local village. Edwin couldn’t shake the gnawing in his gut as he felt guilty for helping to put these men in jail. So, he did something remarkable.

Instead of brushing off his empathy for the men, he became more curious about them and especially the reasons why they worked as poachers. So, he got in his car and drove to the village. There he sat down with one of the more elderly males and asked him, “Why do you poach?”

They were sitting outside at the time and there were many children playing close by. Thus, the man made a sweeping gesture with his arm as he said, “We do it to feed our children.” In other words, the reasons were economically based. The poachers had no other means of earning a living. Being a logical,  compassionate human, Edwin immediately understood.

When Edwin left the village, he couldn’t stop thinking of the man he met and the trapped lifestyle the villagers were living. So, he came up with a plan to help the village provide food for their people via different methods. Edwin had a savings account which he emptied, giving the money to the to the village males as he discussed his idea with them. They would use the money to rent farm land where they could grow their food. Within six months the village was producing enough food for the village with a surplus of food to sell.

Note: The poachers and village population belonged to the third ethnic group in Rwanda, the Batwa. The Batwa are the original inhabitants of Rwanda. They are the indigenous population who, for generations, depended on the forest and its animals for sustenance

Two years later, Edwin helped the Batwa community establish a living history village to educate and entertain visitors to the park where the gorillas reside. The hamlet is called Iby’Iwacu Cultural Village. While in Rwanda, Edwin and I will spend one and one-half days in the Village talking to the people, including the ex-poachers who now pride themselves as the guardians of the gorillas.  Best of all, we’ll also visit the mountain gorillas.

Because of Edwin’s efforts to save the endangered mountain gorillas and change the lives of the Batwa who poached the gorillas, in 2015 he was nominated for the coveted award of CNN Hero of the Year.

I met Edwin back in 2016, shortly after the death of Cecil the Lion who was murdered by an American dentist, Walter Palmer. As were so many animal lovers, I was utterly shaken by the killing.

It was a deliberate kill, as Palmer’s guides dragged a carcass behind their jeep trying to coax Cecil from the protective boundaries of the park where he, his male friend, Jericho and Cecil’s family lived.

Walter Palmer was an avid Trophy Hunter. Trophy hunters deceive themselves into believing they are conservationists. How can a true conservationist kill a unique animal such as a lion?  They can’t morally and won’t. Palmer and all Trophy Hunters are nothing more than poachers. They poach for personal booty. Their plunder is the animal’s head, skin and other body parts all for two purposes: bragging rights and to hang as evidence the trophy head on a wall in their coveted trophy room.

I sent Edwin a friend request which he immediately accepted. Then, one evening, after learning, via Facebook that he lived “up the highway from me,” I sent an instant message to him. We began talking that evening. I was excited to have found such a remarkable human as he explained to me that he was a CNN 2015 hero of the year nominee and that he was currently earning his Doctorate in Conservation and Tourism at Clemson University. I don’t recall what it was I said, but I evidently mentioned that I was a writer. I was typing away when my eye caught a sentence in his last message. He wrote, “You’re a writer? I’m looking for someone to write my autobiography.” I stopped cold as my eyeballs leapt out of my head, hit the screen of my computer, then bounced back into my sockets. My heart stopped as I said out loud, “Oh my God!” And so, our story began.

While I’m away, I plan to blog every day. My next-door neighbor suggested I do that, so she could keep up with me. I thought that was a great idea as well, because, in addition to my written notes and those I record via two hand held recorders, my blog could add to my notes especially since they will be written in real time, capturing my emotions which I know will be abundant.

If you care to follow me while I’m away, I’ll post a link on my website, http://www.maribethshanley.com. My first post, I will publish before I leave on the 10th, will be the itinerary Edwin has prepared for my eighteen-day visit.

I hope you to join me on my journey into beautiful Africa!


Filed under Maribeth Shanley, Travel, writing

The Whole World Sat by and Did Nothing

I’ve spent the past few months researching the history of Rwanda for Edwin Sabuhoro’s autobiography, which he has asked me to help him write.

I knew very little about Rwanda; however, I did recall the horrific Genocide of 1994.  That was only because one Saturday afternoon, several years ago, I happened on the movie Hotel Rwanda.

As I watched this profoundly disturbing film, I wondered why I had never known anything about the Genocide, also referred to as 100 Days of Slaughter.  I pay pretty close attention to the news, yet, I was stunned and shocked by what the film revealed.  I recall feeling ashamed that I knew nothing of such a stunning and unimaginable historical event.  Yet, after doing my research and writing a short history of Rwanda which will be woven into Edwin’s story, I fully understood my ignorance.

As the genocide took place, it simply wasn’t covered by news agencies.  Many countries, the U.S. included, assumed it was nothing more than your typical civil war in the ever troubled countries within the African Continent.  That was the farthest from the truth.

In order to understand Edwin’s story, I knew I needed to become familiar with and understand the history of his country in order to do his autobiography justice.  I had no idea what I was getting into because the history is scattered everywhere.  There are books written about Rwanda but most of them have to do with the genocide and Rwanda’s history as it relates to why the genocide occurred.  Pre-genocide history has been difficult to find.  So, I hunkered down and began surfing the internet in search of the history.  What I found is a history that seems indicative of most of the African continent.  One which began in a period of history called, Pre-Colonialization.

As I read the history, I was imbued with a sense of ‘innocence lost,’ and the knowledge that it was the West that imposed its history on most of the countries in Africa; and, it was the West that gave birth to much of the trouble within the African Continent.  That is especially true for Rwanda.

During our first meeting, Edwin and I created an outline for the book.  As we discussed the outline, it became obvious that I needed to fully understand the history because Edwin’s point of view, in fact his whole being and everything that has happened to him over his 39 years on this earth are intricately intertwined with his country’s history.  That fact seems to be a theme for other Rwandans as well.

This past weekend my husband and I visited Wilmington, N.C.  As we drove the route out of the small city, I spotted an art gallery and stopped to go inside.

I had an interesting conversation with the new owner.  She began picking my brain for ideas on what to bring into her gallery.  I mentioned my love for African art.  I told her that, when I was a senior at the University of Illinois, I decided that I would look for a relatively easy course to take during my final semester.  My eye was on the end of the semester, so, when I was looking for that easy course, I stumbled on an African art history course.  I signed up only to discover within the first week that not only was it a very difficult course, but I had enrolled in an advanced art history class.  By then, however, I had fallen in love with the art, and the cultures of mainly the Western portion of the continent which the course concentrated on.  So, I told the gallery owner that I would be interested in seeing some authentic African artwork.  She cocked her head and exclaimed, “Why thank you for telling me that.  In fact, I have been talking to an artist from Rwanda whose work is wonderful.”

We talked in depth about this artist’s experience, especially since he grew up during the years before and after the genocide.  She was amazed that, given what he saw and experienced, he was such a beautiful and gentle individual.  I told her about Edwin and how, after just a short period I had the distinct feeling that I was in the presence of someone who may just evolve into a very important individual on the level of Nelson Mandela.  That short conversation filled me with the certainty that my intuitive sense of ‘innocence lost’ is not just a feeling but something far more substantial with regard to the country and its people.  I was thrilled when I left the gallery because the owner promised to send me pictures of the artist’s work.  Ironically, his first name is Innocent.

Lake Kivu


Filed under Maribeth Shanley, writing